lsromova 22.11.2021

Lectures, Seminars and Practical Lessons - 21-22 winter

LECTURES

Lecture Hall 3.073 Kateřinská 32 every Monday and Thursday from 12.30 to 14.00 .

WEEK LECTURER
TOPIC
ANNOTATION:

27.9.-1.10.

1.week A


prof.MUDr.A.Šedo, DrSc.


Introduction to the medical chemistry and biochemistry

 Interrelationship between medical chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, and medicine. The significance of the subject for the study of medicine and medical practice. System of subject study, its subdivision into thematic areas, recommended literature.

1.week B

doc.MUDr.P.Bušek,Ph.D.

Water and aqueous dispersion systems, chemical reactions

EL-link


Water as a solvent, true and colloidal solutions and their properties, electrolytic dissociation, ionic strength, diffusion, osmosis, osmotic and oncotic pressure. Types of chemical reactions: redox, acidobase, addition and elimination, nucleophilic substitutions, isomerization, rearrangements. Irreversible, reversible, and consequential chemical reactions, chemical equilibrium, Guldberg-Waage's law.


4-8.10.

2.week A

Mgr.L.Stollinová, Ph.D.

Lecture date changed to 7.10.2021

Acidobasis. pH and buffers, reactions.


 EL-link

 

Definition of acids and bases, Arrhenius and Brönsted-Lowry theories. Protolytes and protolytic processes. Ion product of water and pH definition. Ampholytes. Hydrolysis of salts. Polyelectrolytes. Calculations of pH of strong and weak acids and bases. Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Buffers and calculations of their pH. Significance of buffers for the human organism.


 


2.week B

Mgr.L.Stollinová, Ph.D.


Lecture date changed to 11.10.2021

 


Biogenic elements and medically important inorganic compounds.

 

EL-link

 

Biogenic elements: macro (C, N, O, H, Ca, P, K, Na, S, Cl, Mg) and micro elements (B, F, Fe, Se, Mo, Mn, Cr, I, Co, Cu, Zn, V, Si, Sn) and their medical significance.


 

 

11-15.10.

3.week A

Mgr.L.Stollinová, Ph.D.


Lecture date changed to 14.10.2021

Medicinally important organic compounds.

EL-link
Hydrocarbons. Medicinally important halogen- and nitro- and sulfuric derivatives of hydrocarbons, Amines, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids and their functional and substitutional derivatives. Complex compounds. Substances used as disinfectants and their mechanism of action

3.week B

doc.MUDr.J.Křemen,CSc.


Lecture date changed to 4.10.2021


Saccharides - overview.

EL-link
Definitions, properties, function, significance, structure, classification and characterization of basic saccharide molecules. Laws of monosaccharide structures, isomerism and its meaning. Types of writing formulas and structures. Haworth and Fischer projections. Characteristics of sugar functional groups - chemical and biochemical significances. Properties, biological and medical significance of selected monosaccharides and their derivatives. Other biologically and medically important monosaccharide derivatives. Glycosidic bond, structure, properties. Types of glycosides, structures of disaccharides and oligosaccharides - nomenclature. Properties, biological and medical significance of selected di- and oligosaccharides and their derivatives. Homopolysaccharides and heteropolysaccharides - biochemical patterns, biological and physiological functions.

18.-22.10.

4.week A

Mgr.J.Ševčík, Ph.D.

Medicinally significant heterocyclic compounds.

El-link

Heterocycles. Nomenclature of tetrapyrroles, physical and chemical properties. Bases, nucleosides, nucleotides and their significance.

4.week B

Mgr.J.Ševčík, PhD.


Lipids - overview.

El-link
Definitions, properties, functions and importance, structure and classification, characterization of basic molecules (fatty acids, acylglycerols, phospholipids, sphingolipids, steroids and isoprenoids).

30.10-3.11

5.week A

doc.MUDr.P.Bušek,Ph.D.




Aminoacids and peptides.


 El-link

Definitions, properties, functions and significance. Structure of coding AAs: hydrocarbon chain type, functional group, stereochemical configuration, amphoteric character, hydrogen bridge formation, polarity of the molecule. Effect of dissociation of basic and acidic functional groups AA by pH change. Isoelectric point. Specific features of AA. Peptides: peptide bond formation and hydrolysis, limited rotation around the pept. linkages, cis/trans isomers, preference of trans isomers. Di-, tri- to oligopeptides and polypeptides, their amino-terminal (N-) and carboxy-terminal (C-) termini.

5.week B

RNDr.J.Soukupová, Ph.D.

Structure of proteins and their function in the organism.

El-link
Proteins: structure - determining the order of AA in the chain (genetic code), a set of covalent and non-covalent bonds in one or more chains of the protein molecule. Primary, secondary (alpha helix, beta folded leaf), suprasecondary, tertiary and quaternary structure. General functions of proteins.

1.-5.11.

6.week A

prof.MUDr.A.Šedo, DrSc.


Enzymes 1

El-link
Definition of enzyme. The importance of enzymes in medicine. Substrate and functional-level specificity of enzymes. Enzymological terminology and enzyme classification. Mechanisms and energetics of enzymatic catalysis. Isoenzymes and multiple enzyme isoforms. Apo and holoenzymes. Enzyme cofactors: coenzymes, prosthetic groups, coactivators. Factors influencing the direction of enzymatic reactions. Regulation of the kinetics of enzymatic reaction by changing the substrate concentration. Monomeric and oligomeric enzymes and their kinetics, cooperative effects.

6.week B

prof.MUDr.A.Šedo, DrSc.



Enzymes 2

El-link
Biological regulation of enzyme concentration and activity at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational and posttranslational levels. Reversible and irreversible posttranslational covalent modification of proenzymes (zymogens) and enzymes. Regulation of enzyme aktivity - inhibitors. Kinetics of enzyme inhibition, its kinds and mechanisms. The medicinal and biological significance of enzyme inhibitors. Allosteric enzymes and regulation of their activity. Linear and branched enzyme pathways and feedbacks regulating of their kinetics. Compartmentalization of enzymes in cells and its consequences for metabolism.

8.-12.11.

7.week A

doc.MUDr.J.Křemen,CSc.

Vitamins

El-link


Definition; general classification according to the physical properties; generic descriptive names; chemical names if commonly used alongside; chemical structures; function and significance; dietary sources; diseases caused by a vitamin deficiency and overdose; recommended daily doses of the most important vitamins

7.week B

prof.MUDr.Z. Kleibl. , Ph.D.



 

Introduction to metabolism (biochemistry and energy)


 El-link

Energetics of chemical reactions (entropy, enthalpy). Overview of energy metabolism pathways, human energy needs: gradient maintenance, endergonic reactions, mechanical work. Basic characteristics, significance and mutual metabolic relations of nutrients. Significance and functions of Ac-CoA, NAD and FAD. Compartmentalization of metabolic processes. Intracellular and interorgan metabolism. Principles of metabolic control.

15.-19.11.

8.week A

prof.MUDr.Z. Kleibl., Ph.D.


Makroergic compounds. Respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation.

El-link
Overview of macroergic compounds. Respiratory chain, oxidative phosphorylation, Mitchell´s chemosmotic theory. Reactive forms of oxygen (ROS), antioxidants.

8.week B

prof.MUDr.Z. Kleibl., Ph.D.


Citric acid cycle

El-link
Citric acid cycle as a universal metabolic mill, the most important source of reduced coenzymes. Function of Acetyl Coenzyme A. Intermediates and enzymes of the citric acid cycle. Sites of reduced coenzymes production. Energy balance – the gain of energy by substrate-level and oxidative 

22.11-26.11.

9.week A

prof.MUDr.Z. Kleibl., Ph.D.


Saccharides digestion, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis. Fructose metabolism.

El-link
Dietary sugars, digestion and resorption. Glucose transporters their distribution and regulation – signifiance for metabolism. Glycolysis and gluconeogenesis - steps of glycolysis, regulation, organ/tissue specificity. Fate of pyruvate. Gluconeogenesis and glycolysis: similarities and differences. Metabolic sources for gluconeogenesis. Coordination of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis at local and system level. Fructose metabolism.

9.week B

prof.MUDr.Z. Kleibl., Ph.D.


Glycogen metabolism, uronic acids, pentose phosphate pathway. Galactose metabolism.

El-link
Glykogen - energy depot with rapid change and quick mobilization. Glycogen metabolism: synthesis, degradation (glycogenolysis), mechanisms of regulation and association with metabolism of other nutrients. Hormonal and allosteric regulation of glycogen metabolism, its tissue specificities. Pentose phosphate pathway. Synthesis and significance of glucuronic acid. Galactose metabolism.

29.11.-3.12.

10.week A

Mgr.J.Ševčík, Ph.D.


Lipid digestion, metabolism of triacylglycerols.

El-link
Digestion and transport of lipids (lipases, lipoproteins - their structure, meaning of apoproteins, formation and transformation in the organism, functions). Synthesis and degradation of TAG, mobilization and transport of fatty acids.Splicing of rRNA and tRNA molecules in prokaryotes. Processing and modificationin of the primary transcripts in eukaryotes - capping, polyadenylation, alternative splicing, splicesomes. RNA transport and degradation in eukaryotes.

10.week B

Mgr.J.Ševčík, Ph.D.


Beta oxidation, ketone bodies, fatty acid synthesis.


El-link


Oxidation of fatty acids, carnitine synthesis, carnitine transporter system, mitochondrial beta oxidation - its importance, procedure and regulation; other pathways of fatty acid degradation. Creation, degradation, utilization and significance of ketone bodies. De novy synthesis of fatty acids. Subsequent modifications of fatty acids (desaturation and elongation).

6.-10.12.

11.week A

Mgr.J.Ševčík, Ph.D.


Metabolism of cholesterol and bile acids.

El-link
Cholesterol biosynthesis and degradation and transport. The SREBP mediated regulation of cholesterol metabolism at the cellular level. Bile acid metabolism and regulation.

11.week B

Mgr.J.Ševčík, Ph.D.



Steroid hormones

El-link
Biosynthesis, transport and catabolism of gestagens, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, androgens, estrogens and calcitriol.

13.-17.12.

12.week A

Mgr.J.Ševčík, Ph.D.



Metabolism of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Eikosanoids.

El-link
Metabolism of membrane lipids - glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids - sphingomyelin (formation of sphingosine and ceramide) and glycosphingolipids. Structural and signal functions, the importance of phospholipases, lipid kinases and lipid phosphatases. Eicosanoids - biosynthesis, function and degradation of prostanoids and leukotrienes.

12.week B

RNDr.M.Janatová, Ph.D.


Protein digestion, transamination, ureosynthetic cycle.

El-link
The role of proteases and pH in digestion of proteins in GIT, resorption and transport of amino acids (AA). Catabolism of proteins and AA in cells, involvement of AA in metabolic processes (catabolic and anabolic reactions). Nutritionally essential and non-essential AA. General mechanisms and co-factors of amino acid transformation - transamination, deamination and decarboxylation. Transport and detoxification of ammonia, synthesis and deamination of glutamine, ureosynthetic cycle and its regulation.

 

3.-7.1.
 
13.week A

doc.MUDr.P.Bušek,Ph.D.


 

Metabolism of the carbon skeleton of amino acids.


 El-link

Metabolism of carbon skeleton of amino acids (AA) - glucogenic and ketogenic AA. Metabolism of aliphatic AA: AA of the group of pyruvate, oxalacetate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinyl-CoA and fumarate, AA converting via acetyl-CoA and acetoacetate, metabolism of branched-chain AA.

13.week B

doc.MUDr.P.Bušek,Ph.D.


Metabolism of aromatic amino acids and formation of specialized products.

El-link

Metabolism of aromatic amino acids. Biosynthesis and degradation of biologically active amines: catecholamines, histamine, serotonin, ethanolamine. Biosynthesis of melanin. Biosynthesis of creatin.

10.-14.1.

14.week A

MUDr.I.Melezínek,CSc.


Metabolizm of tetrapyrroles.

El-link
Heme biosynthesis; regulation of heme biosynthesis in hepatocytes and erythroid cells. Tetrapyrrole metabolism - heme degradation; sites of erythrocyte decay and heme degradation, extravascular disintegration - hemoglobin and heme fate, catabolic pathway of heme decay - bilirubin formation - hemoxygenase (HO-1, HO-2, HO-3) physico-chemical properties of bilirubin, transport, bilirubin conjugation and bilirubin excretion, bilirubin fate in GIT - bilinoids. Metabolism of iron.

14.week B

doc.MUDr.J.Křemen,CSc.


 

Purine and pyrimidine metabolism.

 El-link

Purine metabolism - de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotide. Saving synthesis and defects. Catabolism of purines. De novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides, regulation. Salvage synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides and their mutual transformation (interconversion). Catabolism of pyrimidines. Deoxyribonucleotides biosynthesis of and its regulation.

 

SEMINARS AND PRACTICAL LESSONS

Seminars are held on Mondays (Lecture hall 3.073 Kateřinská 32) and Fridays (the Cori Lecture Hall, U Nemocnice 5) from 14.15 to 15.45 

Practical lessons are held every Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday from 14.15 to 17.15 at the Institute of Biochemistry and Experimental Oncology ,U Nemocnice 5

 

Teacher

Seminar

Teacher

Practical lesson / Seminar

1.week

27.9.-1.10.

 

RNDr.J.Soukupová, Ph.D.


RNDr.M.Janatová Ph.D.




 

Laboratry and safety rules. / Repetition of english nomenclature - inorganics. Calculation of solution concentrations. Concentration, dilution of solutions.
El-link

2.week

4-8.10.



Mgr. L. Stolařová



Mgr. P. Zemánková

Automatic pipettes and spectrophotometry. / Concentration, dilution of solutions. Osmolarity, osmotic pressure - calculations

El-link

3.week

11-15.10.

Mgr.I.Matrasová

Chemical calculations - pH (strong and weak acids, bases, buffers). The clinical and biochemical significance of pH and buffers in the body, buffering systems in the organism. pH calculations, buffers.

El-link

R. Mateu Sanz, MSc.



Mgr. P.Výmola

 

Acids, bases, salts. Buffers – dilutions, pH calculation / pH calculations, buffers.

El-link

4.week

18.-22.10.



E.Garcia Borja,MSc

Mgr.M.Houdová, Ph.D.


 

Properties and reactions of biologically and toxicologically important elements and their compounds / Solubility, complex compounds, repeat- biogenic and toxic elements, Pb, Hg, As.

El-link

5.week

25.-29.10.

MUDr. E. Balážiová, PhD.


Organic Chemistry - repetition. Definition, characterization, structure and properties of medically important organic compounds, including complex and heterocyclic compounds. Definitions and patterns of structure and isomerism of monosaccharides. Methods of writing patterns and carbohydrate structures - Haworth and Fischer projections. Chemical properties and biochemical significance of saccharides functional groups. Glycosidic bond, structure, properties. Biological and medical significance of selected monosaccharides and their derivatives. Types of glycosides, structures of disaccharides and oligosaccharides. Homopolysaccharides and heteropolysaccharides and their physiological functions.
El-link

R. Mateu Sanz, MSc., Ph.D.



Mgr. J.Král


Reaction of biochemically important organic compounds. Classification and basic principles of organic compounds nomenclature.
El-link

6.week

1.-5.11.

Mgr. L. Stollinová, Ph.D.


Proteins - properties, functions. Superssecondarry structures, domains.Conformation, native state, protein folding. Structure of selected proteins,consequences of pathological changes affecting the structure of proteins(hemoglobin, collagen, prions etc). Posttranslational modification ofproteins and their importance (lipid anchors, glycosylation, phosphorylation,gamma carboxylation).

El-link


MUDr. E. Balážiová,Ph.D.

 

Mgr. P.Výmola


Amino Acids (AAs) and Proteins / Structure of proteogenic AAs, acidobasic properties of AAs. Peptide bond, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary protein structure - definitions, bounds stabilizing particular levels of structure. Control of study El-link

7.week

8.-12.11.

Mgr. L. Stollinová, Ph.D.

Enzymes - definition and characterization; nomenclature and classification of enzymes; structure of enzymes, coenzymes and prosthetic groups; enzyme specificity; isoenzymes - definition and characterization; regulation of enzyme concentration and activity; methods for determining activity and concentration of enzymes and isoenzymes; the significance of enzymes and isoenzymes in medicine.

El-link



Mgr.I.Matrasová

MUDr. B.Výmolová


 

Protein-emulsification, precipitation, determination of total protein and serum albumin concentration / Plasma protein electrophoresis. The importance of determining total protein and albumin

El-link

8.week

15.-19.11.


Mgr.I.Matrasová

Mgr. J.Král


Enzymes / Enzyme specificity, modulation of enzyme activity, enzyme kinetics, enzyme inhibitio / Michaelis constant - determination and examples from metabolic processes. El-link

9.week

22-26.11.

R. Mateu Sanz, MSc. Ph.D.



Mgr.N.Ternerová

Biological oxidation: Citrate acid cycle dehydrogenases. Peroxidase, Catalase / Citrate acid cycle. Oxygen and its reactive forms.

El-link

10.week

29.11.-3.12.

RNDr.M.Janatová,Ph.D.

Overview of carbohydrates metabolic pathways (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogen synthesis, glycogenolysis, glucose conversion to glucuronic acid and its utilization, fructose and galactose metabolism and their inclusion in glycolysis, pentose phosphate cycle) and disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (glycogenosis, galactosemia,fructose metabolism disorders)


 El-link


MUDr. M. Zubal


Mgr.M.Houdová, Ph.D.


Starch digestion / Kinds and types of amylases. Human salivary and pancreatic amylases, differences (isoenzymes). Level of α-amylase activity in parotitis and pancreatitis and utilization of changes in enzyme activity in differential diagnosis. Amylase in blood and urine. Macroamylase. Comparison of α-amylase and saccharase cleavage mechanism. Enzymes involved in carbohydrate cleavage, mechanism of action and localization.

El-link

Control of study

11.week

6.-10.12.

RNDr. M. Borecká,Ph.D.

MUDr. M. Zubal



Bile acids, lipid digestion / Overview of lipid metabolism - repetition of lipids metabolic pathways.

El-link

12.week

13.-17.12.

Mgr. J. Ševčík,Ph.D.

Lipids - transport and metabolism overview, lipoperoxidation, lipid metabolism disorders, primary and secondary dyslipidemia - familial hypercholesterolaemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia; diabetes mellitus, metabolic ketoacidosis, atherosclerosis.

El-link

 

R. Mateu Sanz, MSc. Ph.D.



MUDr. M. Zubal


Cholesterol, triacylglycerols, lipoproteins / Dyslipidemias – atherosclerosis risk factors.

El-link

13.week

3.-7.1.


 

MUDr. M. Hilšer, Ph.D.



MUDr.T.Šváblová



Nitrogen balance / nitrogen balance - evaluation. Transamination, deamination, ureosynthetic cycle. Ureosynthetic cycle defects - hyperammonaemia.


 El-link

 

14.week

10.-14.1.

Mgr.M.Houdová, Ph.D.


 

Metabolism of amino acids (AA) and selected disorders of the metabolism of AA (phenylketonuria, alkaptonuria, homocystinuria, metabolic disorders of the branched chain AA). Metabolism of monocarbon AA residues.

El-link

MUDr. M. Hilšer, Ph.D.


Mgr. L. Stolařová

Tetrapyrroles: Determination of hemoglobin and bilirubin concentration / Porphyria, Ikterus.

Control of study
El-link

15.week

Credit.

 

 

 

 

 

Attendance at lectures is recommendable, attendance at practical lessons and seminars is obligatory.

The condition for a credit is attendance at all compulsory lessons and a minimum necessary volume of knowledge and skills.

Students are also recquired to wear his/her Student´ID Card on a visible place.

Note:

    Each student is supposed to bring to each practical lesson a laboratory coat, water-resistent markers, pen, calculator, latex gloves and the written instructions issued for the practical lesson

Important:

    All students have to bring to the pactical lessons their own padlock with a key in order to leave their things locked in the boxes outside the student laboratory.

 

8.9.2021 
Prof. MUDr. Aleksi Šedo, DrSc.

number of views: 4885 author: lsromova, last modification: lsromova, 22.11.2021
Page ranking: If you think the article is not up-to-date, click here.